Chad officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in central Africa. It borders Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Due to its distance from the sea and its largely desert climate, the country is sometimes referred to as the "Dead Heart of Africa". Chad is divided into three major geographical regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanian savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second largest in Africa. Chad's highest peak is the Emi Koussi in the Sahara, and the largest city by far is N'Djamena, the capital. Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. French and Arabic are the official languages.
Official languages French, Arabic
Currency CFA franc (XAF)
If bountiful year-round sunshine and arid 40°C (104°F) days have a certain appeal then look no further than Saharan Chad. If the majestic images that the Sahara conjures up are too tempting but you'd prefer more friendly conditions, try the southern part of Chad between November and February. There are three distinct climatic zones. In the tropical south temperatures usually range from 20-25°C (68-77°F), but can rise to 40°C (104°F) just before the rains. The centre, where N'Djaména and Lake Chad are located, is a Sahelian blend of scrub and desert where pre-rain temperatures can rise to over 45°C (113°F). The arid north forms part of the Sahara Desert and includes the Tibesti Mountains, which rise to the peak of Emi Koussi (3415m), the highest point in the Sahara.
Each year a tropical weather system known as the intertropical front crosses Chad from south to north, bringing a brief wet season; a longer dry season follows.Variations in local rainfall create three major geographical zones. The Sahara lays in the countries northern third. Yearly precipitations there are under 50 mm; in fact, Borkou in Chad is the most arid area of the Sahara. Vegetation throughout this belt is scarce; only the occasional spontaneous palm grove survives, the only ones to do so south of the Tropic of Cancer. The Sahara gives way to a Sahelian belt in Chad's centre; precipitation there varies from 300 to 600 mm per year. In the Sahel a steppe of thorny bushes (mostly acacias) gradually gives way to a savanna in Chad's Sudanian zone to the south. Yearly rainfall in this belt is over 900 mm. The region's tall grasses and extensive marshes make it favourable for birds, reptiles, and large mammals. Chad's major rivers—the Chari, Logone and their tributaries—flow through the southern savannas from the southeast into Lake Chad.